Publications

Dr. Pekala’s Published Book:

Pekala, R. J. (1991). Quantifying consciousness:
An empirical approach.

New York: Plenum Press.

Dr. Pekala’s Publications and Award-Winning Research Articles

Pekala, R. J. & Maurer, R. M. (2013). A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61:1, 81-110.

Pekala, R. J. (2011). Reply to Wagstaff:  “Hypnosis and the relationship between trance, suggestion, expectancy, and depth:  Some semantic and conceptual issues.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 53, 207-227.  [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 7th, 2011 (Las Vegas, NE) for "scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis."]

Pekala, R. J. (2010). Reply to “Methodological and interpretative issues regarding the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure: A comment on Pekala et al. (2010a, 2010b).” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 53, 115-128.  [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 7th, 2011 (Las Vegas, NE) for "scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis."]

Pekala, R.J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V. K., Elliott-Carter, N., & Mullen, K. (2010). Trance State Effects and Imagery Vividness Before and During a Hypnotic Assessment:  A Preliminary Study.  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58, 1-34.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter N., Moon, E, & Mullen, K. (2010).  Suggestibility, Expectancy, Trance State Effects, and Hypnotic Depth:  I. Implications for Understanding Hypnotism. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52, 271-286. [Recipient of the Clark Hull Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 15th,  2010  (Nashville, TN) for "scientific excellence in writing on experimental hypnosis." ]

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter N., Moon, E, & Mullen, K. (2010).  Suggestibility, Expectancy, Trance State Effects, and Hypnotic Depth:  II. Assessment via the PCI-HAP. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52, 287-314. [Recipient of the Clark Hull Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 15th,  2010  (Nashville, TN) for "scientific excellence in writing on experimental hypnosis." ]

Pekala R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., & Moon, E., Mullen, K. (2009).  Positive affect, negative affect, and negative effects during a phenomenological hypnotic assessment within a substance abuse population.  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57, 64-93.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N. C., & Moon, E. (2009). Self-esteem and its relationship to serenity and anger/impulsivity in an alcohol/other drug dependent population:  Implications for treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 27, 94-112.

Pekala, R. J., & Wickramasekera, I. (2007).  An empirical phenomenological approach to hypnotic assessment:  Overview and use of the PCI-HAP as an assessment instrument.  Psychological Hypnosis: Society of Psychological Hypnosis, 16, 4-6, 15-19.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2007). An empirical-phenomenological approach to quantifying consciousness and states of consciousness:  With particular reference to understanding the nature of hypnosis. In G. Jamieson (Ed.). Towards a cognitive-neuroscience of hypnosis and conscious states:  A resource for researchers, students, and clinicians.  (pp. 167-194). London:  Oxford University Press.

Pekala, R. J. (2006).  An empirical phenomenological approach to hypnotic assessment.   Psychological Hypnosis: Society of Psychological Hypnosis, 15, 9-15.

Pekala R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., & Moon, E. (2006). How deeply hypnotized did I get?”  Predicting self-reported hypnotic depth for a phenomenological assessment instrument. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54,316-339.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2005). States, traits, and provocative debates:  The state/nonstate controversy with particular reference to operationalizing “hypnotism.” Psychological Hypnosis, 14, pp. 13-18.  [Recipient of the Best Theoretical Paper award from the American Psychological Association received August,  2005  (Washington, DC).]

Pekala, R. J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V. K., Elliott, N. C., Masten, E., Moon, E., Salinger, M. (2004). Self-hypnosis relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users:  Effects on self-esteem, affect, and relapse.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46, 281-297. [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 14th, 2005 (Saint Louis, MO) for "scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis."]

Pekala, R. J. (2002). Operationalizing “trance:” II:  Clinical application using a psychophenomenological approach.   American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44, 241-255.

Pekala, R. J., Angelini, F., & Kumar, V. K.  (2001). The importance of fantasy proneness in dissociation:  A replication. Contemporary Hypnosis, 18, 204-214.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Ainslie, A., Elliott, N.C., Mullen, K.J., Salinger, M.M., Masten, E., Mullen, P. (2000). The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale:  Reliability, validity, and subtypes in a substance abuse population.   Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 262-272.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2000). Operationalizing “trance:” I:  Rationale and research using a psychophenomenological approach.   American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43, 107-135. [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 26th, 2001 (Reno, NE) for "scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis."]

Pekala, R. J., Ainslie, G., Elliott, N. C., Mullen, K. J., Salinger, M. M., Masten, E., Angelini, F., & Kumar, V. K. (2000).  Assessing substance abuse:  An automated self-report inventory. Federal Practitioner, 17, 27-39.

Pekala, R. J. & Cardeña, E. (2000). Methodological issues in the study of altered states of consciousness and anomalous experiences.  In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn, and S. Krippner (Eds.). Varieties of anomalous experience. (pp. 47-82). Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2000). Individual differences in patterns of hypnotic experience across low and high susceptibles.  In R. G. Kunzendorf and B. Wallace (Eds.). Individual differences in conscious experience. (pp. 309-323). Philadelphia:  John Benjamins.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Ainslie, G., Elliott, E. C., Mullen, K. J., Salinger, M. M., & Masten, E. (1999-2000).  Dissociation as a function of child abuse and fantasy proneness in a substance abuse population.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 19, 105-129.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. J. (1997).  Types of hypnotically (un)susceptible individuals as a function of phenomenological experience:  Towards a typology of hypnotic types.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 39, 212-224. [Recipient of the Best Theoretical/Clinical Paper award from the American Psychological Association  received August,  2005  (Washington, DC).]

Pekala, R. J. (1995). A short, unobtrusive hypnotic-assessment procedure for assessing hypnotizability level:  I.  Development and research. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 271-283.

Pekala, R. J. (1995). A short unobtrusive hypnotic induction for assessing hypnotizability level:  II.  Clinical case reports.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 284-293.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Anomalous/paranormal experiences, hypnotic susceptibility, and dissociation.  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 89, 313-332.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Hypnotic susceptibility, dissociation, and marijuana use:  A relationship between high hypnotic susceptibility, marijuana use, and dissociative ability.  DISSOCIATION, 8, 112-119.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Hypnotic types:  A partial replication concerning phenomenal experience. Contemporary Hypnosis, 12, 194-200.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Hand, J. (1993). Subjective experience, expectancy, and hypnosis:  Interacting effects. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10, 133-143.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Cummings, J. (1993). Types of high hypnotically susceptible individuals and reported attitudes and experiences of the paranormal and the anomalous. American Journal for the Society of Psychical Research, 8, 95‑104.

Pekala, R. J., & Ersek, B. (1992/93). Fire-walking versus hypnosis:  A preliminary study concerning consciousness, attention, and  fire immunity. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 12, 207-229.

Pekala, R. J. (1991). Hypnotic types:  Evidence from a cluster analysis of phenomenal experience. Contemporary Hypnosis, 8, 95‑104.

Pekala, R. J., & Bieber, S. L. (1990). Operationalizing pattern approaches to consciousness:  An analysis of phenomenological patterns of consciousness among individuals of differing susceptibility. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 303‑320.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. J. (1990). Subjective effects of several stress management strategies:  With reference to attention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 39‑44.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1989).  Patterns of consciousness during hypnosis:  Relevance to cognition and individual differences. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 1‑20.

Pekala, R. J., Forbes, E. J., & Contrisciani, P. A. (1988-89).  Assessing the phenomenological effects associated with several stress management strategies. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 8, 265‑281.

Pekala, R. J., & Nagler, R. (1989). The assessment of hypnoidal states:  Rationale and clinical application.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 231‑236.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. (1988).  Hypnoidal effects associated with several stress management strategies.  Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 121‑132.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K.  (1988). Phenomenological variations in attention across low, medium, and high hypnotically susceptible individuals.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 7, 303‑314.

Pekala, R. J. (1987).  The phenomenology of meditation. In M. West (Ed.), The psychology of meditation. London: Oxford University Press, pp. 59‑80.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1987). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility via a self‑report instrument:  A replication. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 57‑65.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1986). The differential organization of the structures of consciousness during hypnosis and a baseline condition. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 515‑539.

Pekala, R. J., Steinberg, J., & Kumar, V. K. (1986). Measurement of phenomenological experience:  Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 983‑989.

Pekala, R. J. (1985). Biofeedback, hypnosis, and individual differences in cognitive style:  When to do what to whom. The Cognitive Behaviorist, 7, 11‑13.

Pekala, R. J., (1985). A psychophenomenological approach to mapping and diagramming states of consciousness. Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, 8, 199‑214.

Pekala, R. J., Siegel, J. M., & Farrar, D. M. (1985). The problem‑solving support group:  Structured group therapy with psychiatric in‑patients. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 35, 391‑409.

Pekala, R. J., Wenger, C. F., & Levine, R. L. (1985). Individual differences in phenomenological experience:  States of consciousness as a function of absorption. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 125‑132.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1985). A short program for assessing the equality of two independent correlation matrices. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 175‑177.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1984). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility by a self‑report phenomenological state instrument. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 114‑ 121.

Pekala, R. J., & Wenger, C. F. (1983). Retrospective phenomenological assessment:  Mapping consciousness in reference to specific stimulus conditions. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 4, 247‑274.

Pekala, R. J. (1983). Lottery incentive. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 576.

Pekala, R. J., & Levine, R. L. (1982). Quantifying states of consciousness via an empirical‑phenomenological approach. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality:  The Scientific Study of Consciousness, 2, 51‑71.

Pekala, R. J., & Levine, R. L. (1981). Mapping consciousness:  Development of an empirical‑phenomenological approach.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality:  The Scientific Study of Consciousness, 1, 29‑47.