Publications

Dr. Pekala’s Publications and Award-Winning Research

Pekala, R., Baglio, F., Cabinio, M., Lipari, S., Baglio, G., Mendozz,, L., Cecconi, Pugnetti, L. & Sciaky, R.  (2017). Hypnotism as a Function of Trance State Effects, Expectancy, and Suggestibility: An ltalian Replication  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 65(2), 210-240.

Pekala, R. J. (2016). The “Mysteries of Hypnosis:”  Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT), American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 58, 274-285

Pekala, R. J. (2015). Hypnosis as a “state of consciousness”:  How quantifying the mind can help us better understand hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 57(4) 402-424.

Pekala, R. J. & Maurer, R. M. (2015). Imagery vividness before and during the PCI-HAP:  A partial replication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 63(1), 10-33.

Cardeña, E. & Pekala, R. J.  (2014), Researching states of consciousness and anomalous experiences. In E. Cardeña , S. J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experience:  Examining the scientific evidence (2nd ed.). Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Pekala, R. J. & Maurer, R. M. (2013). A cross-validation of two differing measures of hypnotic depth. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 61:1, 81-110.

Pekala, R. J. (2011). Reply to Wagstaff:  “Hypnosis and the relationship between trance, suggestion, expectancy, and depth:  Some semantic and conceptual issues.” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 53, 207-227.  [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 7th, 2011 (Las Vegas, NE) for “scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis.”]

Pekala, R. J. (2010). Reply to “Methodological and interpretative issues regarding the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory: Hypnotic Assessment Procedure: A comment on Pekala et al. (2010a, 2010b).” American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 53, 115-128.  [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 7th, 2011 (Las Vegas, NE) for “scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis.”]

Pekala, R.J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V. K., Elliott-Carter, N., & Mullen, K. (2010). Trance State Effects and Imagery Vividness Before and During a Hypnotic Assessment:  A Preliminary Study.  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58, 1-34.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter N., Moon, E, & Mullen, K. (2010).  Suggestibility, Expectancy, Trance State Effects, and Hypnotic Depth:  I. Implications for Understanding Hypnotism. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52, 271-286. [Recipient of the Clark Hull Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 15th,  2010  (Nashville, TN) for “scientific excellence in writing on experimental hypnosis.” ]

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter N., Moon, E, & Mullen, K. (2010).  Suggestibility, Expectancy, Trance State Effects, and Hypnotic Depth:  II. Assessment via the PCI-HAP. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52, 287-314. [Recipient of the Clark Hull Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 15th,  2010  (Nashville, TN) for “scientific excellence in writing on experimental hypnosis.” ]

Barnes, S. M., Lynn, S. J., & Pekala, R. J. (2009).  Not all hypnotic suggestibility scales are created equal:  Individual differences in behavioral and subjective responses.  Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 255-265.

Pekala R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., & Moon, E., Mullen, K. (2009).  Positive affect, negative affect, and negative effects during a phenomenological hypnotic assessment within a substance abuse population.  International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57, 64-93.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N. C., & Moon, E. (2009). Self-esteem and its relationship to serenity and anger/impulsivity in an alcohol/other drug dependent population:  Implications for treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 27, 94-112.

Pekala, R. J., & Wickramasekera, I. (2007).  An empirical phenomenological approach to hypnotic assessment:  Overview and use of the PCI-HAP as an assessment instrument.  Psychological Hypnosis: Society of Psychological Hypnosis, 16, 4-6, 15-19.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2007). An empirical-phenomenological approach to quantifying consciousness and states of consciousness:  With particular reference to understanding the nature of hypnosis. In G. Jamieson (Ed.). Towards a cognitive-neuroscience of hypnosis and conscious states:  A resource for researchers, students, and clinicians.  (pp. 167-194). London:  Oxford University Press.

Feldman, M, Kumar, v. K., Angelini, F., Pekala, R. J., & Porter, J. (2007). Individual differences in substance preference and substance abuse. Journal of Addiction and Offender Counseling, 27, 82-101.

Pekala, R. J. (2006).  An empirical phenomenological approach to hypnotic assessment.   Psychological Hypnosis: Society of Psychological Hypnosis, 15, 9-15.

Pekala R. J., Kumar, V. K., Maurer, R., Elliott-Carter, N., & Moon, E. (2006). How deeply hypnotized did I get?”  Predicting self-reported hypnotic depth for a phenomenological assessment instrument. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54,316-339.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2005). States, traits, and provocative debates:  The state/nonstate controversy with particular reference to operationalizing “hypnotism.” Psychological Hypnosis, 14, pp. 13-18.  [Recipient of the Best Theoretical Paper award from the American Psychological Association  received August,  2005  (Washington, DC).]

Manmiller, J., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (2005). Hypnotizability, creative capacity, creativity styles absorption, and phenomenological experience during hypnosis. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 9-24.

Robin, B. R., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (2005). Direct and indirect scales of hypnotic susceptibility:  Resistance to therapy and psychometric comparability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 135-147.

Pekala, R. J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V. K., Elliott, N. C., Masten, E., Moon, E., Salinger, M. (2004). Self-hypnosis relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users:  Effects on self-esteem, affect, and relapse.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46, 281-297. [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 14th, 2005 (Saint Louis, MO) for “scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis.”]

Pekala, R. J. (2002). Operationalizing “trance:” II:  Clinical application using a psychophenomenological approach.   American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44, 241-255.

Lavertue, N. E., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (2002). The effectiveness of a hypnotic ego-strengthening procedure for improving self-esteem and depression.  Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30, 1-23.

Pekala, R. J., Angelini, F., & Kumar, V. K.  (2001). The importance of fantasy proneness in dissociation:  A replication. Contemporary Hypnosis, 18, 204-214.

Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (2001). Relation of hypnosis-specific attitudes and behaviors to paranormal beliefs and experiences:  A technical review. In J. Houran & R. Lange (Eds.), A haunting question of perception:  Scientific perspectives on hauntings and poltergeists. (pp. 260-331).  Springfield, IL:  Greenwood Publishing Group.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Ainslie, A., Elliott, N.C., Mullen, K.J., Salinger, M.M., Masten, E., Mullen, P. (2000). The Child Abuse and Trauma Scale:  Reliability, validity, and subtypes in a substance abuse population.   Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 262-272.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2000). Operationalizing “trance:” I:  Rationale and research using a psychophenomenological approach.   American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43, 107-135. [Recipient of the Milton Erickson Award from the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis received March 26th, 2001 (Reno, NE) for “scientific excellence in writing on clinical hypnosis.”]

Pekala, R. J., Ainslie, G., Elliott, N. C., Mullen, K. J., Salinger, M. M., Masten, E., Angelini, F., & Kumar, V. K. (2000).  Assessing substance abuse:  An automated self-report inventory. Federal Practitioner, 17, 27-39.

Pekala, R. J. & Cardeña, E. (2000). Methodological issues in the study of altered states of consciousness and anomalous experiences.  In E. Cardeña, S. J. Lynn, and S. Krippner (Eds.). Varieties of anomalous experience. (pp. 47-82). Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (2000). Individual differences in patterns of hypnotic experience across low and high susceptibles.  In R. G. Kunzendorf and B. Wallace (Eds.). Individual differences in conscious experience. (pp. 309-323). Philadelphia:  John Benjamins.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., Ainslie, G., Elliott, E. C., Mullen, K. J., Salinger, M. M., & Masten, E. (1999-2000).  Dissociation as a function of child abuse and fantasy proneness in a substance abuse population.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 19, 105-129.

Kumar, V. K., Pekala, R. J., & McCloskey, M. M. (1999). Phenomenological state effects during hypnosis:  A cross-validation of findings. Contemporary Hypnosis, 16, 9-22.

McCloskey, M. S., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1999). State and trait depression, physical and social anhedonia, hypnotizability, and subjective experiences during hypnosis.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 41, 231-252.

Koppenhaver, J. M., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1997). Dissociativity, imagery vividness, and reality monitoring. Dissociation, 10, 21-28.

Maurer, R. L., Kumar, V. K., Woodside, L., & Pekala, R. J. (1997). Phenomenological experiences in response to monotonous drumming and hypnotizability. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40, 130-145.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. J. (1997).  Types of hypnotically (un)susceptible individuals as a function of phenomenological experience:  Towards a typology of hypnotic types.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 39, 212-224. [Recipient of the Best Theoretical/ Clinical Paper award from the American Psychological Association  received August,  2005  (Washington, DC).]

Woodside, l. N., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1997). Monotonous percussion drumming and trance postures:  A controlled evaluation of phenomenological effects.  Anthropology of Consciousness, 8, 69-87.

Kumar, V. K., Pekala, R. J., & Marcano, G. (1996). Hypnotizability, dissociativity, and phenomenological experience. DISSOCIATION, 9, 143-153.

Forbes, R. J. & Pekala, R. J. (1996). Types of hypnotically (un)susceptible individuals as a function of phenomenological experience:  A partial replication. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 92-109.

Kumar, V. K., Pekala, R. J., & Cummings, J. (1996). Trait factors, state effects, and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 44, 232-249.

Hand, J., Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1995). Prediction of Harvard and Stanford Scale scores with a phenomenological instrument. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 124-134.

Pekala, R. J. (1995). A short, unobtrusive hypnotic-assessment procedure for assessing hypnotizability level:  I.  Development and research. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 271-283.

Pekala, R. J. (1995). A short unobtrusive hypnotic induction for assessing hypnotizability level:  II.  Clinical case reports.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 37, 284-293.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Anomalous/paranormal experiences, hypnotic susceptibility, and dissociation.  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 89, 313-332.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Hypnotic susceptibility, dissociation, and marijuana use:  A relationship between high hypnotic susceptibility, marijuana use, and dissociative ability.  DISSOCIATION, 8, 112-119.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Marcano, G. (1995). Hypnotic types:  A partial replication concerning phenomenal experience. Contemporary Hypnosis, 12, 194-200.

Zeiders, C., & Pekala, R. J. (1995). A review of the evidence regarding the behavioral, medical and psychological efficacy of Christian prayer. Journal of Christian Healing, 17, 17-28.

Gallagher, C., Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1994). The Anomalous Experiences Inventory:  Reliability and validity. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 402-428.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Hand, J. (1993). Subjective experience, expectancy, and hypnosis:  Interacting effects. Contemporary Hypnosis, 10, 133-143.

Forbes, E. J., & Pekala, R. J., (1993). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility via a phenomenological approach. Psychological Reports, 73, 1251-1256.

Kumar, V. K., Pekala, R. J., & Cummings, J. (1993). Sensation seeking, drug use, and reported paranormal beliefs and experiences. Personality and Individual Differences, 14, 685-691.

Forbes, E., & Pekala, R. J., (1993). Psychophysiological effects of several stress management techniques. Psychological Reports, 72, 19-27.

Pekala, R. J., Kumar, V. K., & Cummings, J. (1993). Types of high hypnotically susceptible individuals and reported attitudes and experiences of the paranormal and the anomalous. American Journal for the Society of Psychical Research, 8, 95‑104.

Pekala, R. J., & Ersek, B. (1992/93). Fire-walking versus hypnosis:  A preliminary study concerning consciousness, attention, and  fire immunity. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 12, 207-229.

Pekala, R. J. (1991). Quantifying consciousness: An empirical approach. New York: Plenum Press.

Pekala, R. J. (1991). Hypnotic types:  Evidence from a cluster analysis of phenomenal experience. Contemporary Hypnosis, 8, 95‑104.

Maitz, E., & Pekala, R. J. (1991). Phenomenological quantification of an out‑of‑the‑body experience associated with a near‑death event. OMEGA, 22, 199‑214.

Pekala, R. J., & Bieber, S. L. (1990). Operationalizing pattern approaches to consciousness:  An analysis of phenomenological patterns of consciousness among individuals of differing susceptibility. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 303‑320.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. J. (1990). Subjective effects of several stress management strategies:  With reference to attention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 39‑44.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1989).  Patterns of consciousness during hypnosis:  Relevance to cognition and individual differences. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 17, 1‑20.

Pekala, R. J., Forbes, E. J., & Contrisciani, P. A. (1988-89).  Assessing the phenomenological effects associated with several stress management strategies. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 8, 265‑281.

Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1989). Variations in phenomenological experience as a function of hypnotic susceptibility: A replication. British Journal of Experimental and  Clinical Hypnosis, 6, 17‑22.

Pekala, R. J., & Nagler, R. (1989). The assessment of hypnoidal states:  Rationale and clinical application.  American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 31, 231‑236.

Pekala, R. J., & Forbes, E. (1988).  Hypnoidal effects associated with several stress management strategies.  Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 16, 121‑132.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K.  (1988). Phenomenological variations in attention across low, medium, and high hypnotically susceptible individuals.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 7, 303‑314.

Kumar, V. K., & Pekala, R. J. (1988).  Hypnotizability, absorption, and individual differences in phenomenological experience. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 80‑88.

Pekala, R. J. (1987).  The phenomenology of meditation. In M. West (Ed.), The psychology of meditation. London: Oxford University Press, pp. 59‑80.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1987). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility via a self‑report instrument:  A replication. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 30, 57‑65.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1986). The differential organization of the structures of consciousness during hypnosis and a baseline condition. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 7, 515‑539.

Pekala, R. J., Steinberg, J., & Kumar, V. K. (1986). Measurement of phenomenological experience:  Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 983‑989.

Pekala, R. J. (1985). Biofeedback, hypnosis, and individual differences in cognitive style:  When to do what to whom. The Cognitive Behaviorist, 7, 11‑13.

Pekala, R. J., (1985). A psychophenomenological approach to mapping and diagramming states of consciousness. Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, 8, 199‑214.

Pekala, R. J., Siegel, J. M., & Farrar, D. M. (1985). The problem‑solving support group:  Structured group therapy with psychiatric in‑patients. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 35, 391‑409.

Pekala, R. J., Wenger, C. F., & Levine, R. L. (1985). Individual differences in phenomenological experience:  States of consciousness as a function of absorption. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 125‑132.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1985). A short program for assessing the equality of two independent correlation matrices. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 175‑177.

Pekala, R. J., & Kumar, V. K. (1984). Predicting hypnotic susceptibility by a self‑report phenomenological state instrument. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27, 114‑ 121.

Pekala, R. J., & Wenger, C. F. (1983). Retrospective phenomenological assessment:  Mapping consciousness in reference to specific stimulus conditions. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 4, 247‑274.

Pekala, R. J. (1983). Lottery incentive. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 34, 576.

Pekala, R. J., & Levine, R. L. (1982). Quantifying states of consciousness via an empirical‑phenomenological approach. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality:  The Scientific Study of Consciousness, 2, 51‑71.

Pekala, R. J., & Levine, R. L. (1981). Mapping consciousness:  Development of an empirical‑phenomenological approach.  Imagination, Cognition, and Personality:  The Scientific Study of Consciousness, 1, 29‑47.